what is the Black Madonna? image from wp.
- pre-xn from the days of goddess-worship, tho now it is a ‘type of Marian statue or painting of mainly medieval origin (12C-15C)’
- ‘According to Stephen Benko, “the Black Madonna is the ancient earth-goddess converted to Christianity.” His argument begins by noting that many goddesses were pictured as black, among them Artemis of Ephesus, Isis, Ceres, and others. Ceres, the Roman goddess of agricultural fertility, is particularly important. Her Greek equivalent is Demeter.’
what is the International Forum on Globalization (IGF)? image from wp/igf.
- an ‘alliance of sixty of the world’s most prominent activists, scholars, economists, researchers and writers,… established in response to increasing economic globalization, to “promote equitable, democratic, and ecologically sustainable economies” ‘ including ralph nader, maude barlow, vandana shiva, and many more
- ‘IFG publishes research detailing various aspects of the impact of global economic forces related to globalization, such as the 2010 paper “Outing the Oligarchy”, the 2011 report “Nuclear Roulette: The Case Against a ‘Nuclear Renaissance'”, the 2009 paper “Searching for a Miracle”, and papers published in collaboration with other research and advocacy groups. In 2002, the organization published International Forum on Globalization: Alternatives to Economic Globalization, a 260-page collection of articles presenting “10 governing principles for new rules and institutions for the global economy, rules that will lead to more democratic and sustainable societies.” The 2004 2nd edition was expanded….’
what is The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network? image from lter.
- ‘created by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1980 to conduct research on ecological issues that can last decades and span huge geographical areas’
- ‘provides the scientific expertise, research platforms, and long-term datasets necessary to document and analyze environmental change’
- ‘brings together a multi-disciplinary group of more than 2000 scientists and graduate students. The 26 LTER sites encompass diverse ecosystems in the continental United States, Alaska, Antarctica and islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific—including deserts, estuaries, lakes, oceans, coral reefs, prairies, forests, alpine and Arctic tundra, urban areas, and production agriculture’
what was the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–68)? image from wp.
- one of a series of ‘social movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and restoring voting rights to them … characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance … [such as] the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–56) in Alabama; “sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965)’
- ‘Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the Civil Rights Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned discrimination based on “race, color, religion, or national origin” in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to action.’
- following the civil war ‘as African Americans were being disfranchised, white Democrats imposed racial segregation by law. Violence against blacks increased. The system of de jure state-sanctioned racial discrimination and oppression that emerged out of the post-Reconstruction South became known as the “Jim Crow” system. It remained virtually intact into the mid-1950s, when most states integrated their schools. Thus, the early 20th century is a period often referred to as the “nadir of American race relations”…. The situation for blacks outside the South was somewhat better (in most states they could vote and have their children educated, though they still faced discrimination in housing and jobs). From 1910 to 1970, African Americans sought better lives by migrating north and west. A total of nearly seven million blacks left the South in what was known as the Great Migration.’
who was gerda lerner? image from zap2it.com.
- 1920-2013–‘historian, author and teacher,…one of the founders of the field of women’s history,… played a key role in the development of women’s history curricula. She taught what is considered to be the first women’s history course in the world at the New School for Social Research in 1963…. She also wrote the screenplay for her husband Carl Lerner’s film Black Like Me (1966).’
- born in vienna, jewish, she escaped the nazis and immigrated to the USA in 1939 and ‘worked as a waitress, salesperson, office clerk, and x-ray technician, all the while writing fiction and poetry…. Committed Communists, the Lerners were involved in numerous grassroots activities involving trade unionism, civil rights, and anti-militarism; they struggled against McCarthyism, especially the Hollywood blacklist. Lerner returned to school in the late 1950s;… her dissertation became her first publication, The Grimke Sisters from South Carolina: Rebels Against Slavery (1967)…. Her article “The Lady and the Mill Girl” (1969) was an early and influential example of class analysis in women’s history.’
- ‘In 1979 … [participants] agreed to support an effort to secure a “National Women’s History Week.” This all helped lead to the later celebration of Women’s History Month…. In 1980, Lerner created the nation’s first Ph.D. program in women’s history…. As an educational director for [the Organization of American Historians], she helped make women’s history accessible to leaders of women’s organizations and high school teachers…. Among her most important works are the documentary anthologies, Black Women in White America (1972) and The Female Experience (1976), the essay collections, The Majority Finds Its Past (1979) and Why History Matters (1997), The Creation of Patriarchy (1986), and The Creation of Feminist Consciousness (1993). She published Fireweed: A Political Autobiography in 2002.’